Authors guidelines
Manuscripts must be submitted using the e-mail address Manuscripts are accepted on the understanding that they report unpublished work that is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

General structure:
• MS Word editor 
• font – Times New Roman 
• 12-point type 
• all margins – 2 cm 
• interline – 2.0 
• text alignment – justified
• pages numbered
• do insert line numbers in the body of the manuscript to facilitate the reviewing and editing processes
• words division turned off
• standard division into paragraphs (each new paragraph should be indented)
• type only one space following the end of a sentence
Because of the adoption of anonymous refereeing by the Journal with effect from 1 January 2014, the title page and manuscript should include no information that clearly identifies the authors or their affiliations. Authors should submit a separate cover letter, which is not part of the manuscript, that can include the following information: the full title; the names of the authors without qualifications or titles; the affiliations and full addresses of the authors; the name, address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address of the author responsible for all correspondence and correction of proofs. Any acknowledgements should also appear on this page, not in the manuscript. These acknowledgements will appear in the printed version if the manuscript is accepted.

Manuscripts should be compiled in the following order:
– Title and running title
– Short structured abstract (BACKGROUND: METHODS: RESULTS: CONCLUSION:) not exceeding 200 words;

– To include the level of the evidence as follow:

Level of


Type of study
1a Systematic review of (homogeneous) randomized controlled trials
1b Individual randomized controlled trials (with narrow confidence intervals)
2a Systematic review of (homogeneous) cohort studies of “exposed” and “unexposed” subjects
2b Individual cohort study / Low-quality randomized controlled trials
3a Systematic review of (homogeneous) case-control studies
3b Individual case-control studies
4 Case series, low-qaulity cohort or case-control studies
5 Expert opinions based on non systematic reviews of result or mechanistic studies

Levels of evidence for therapy or prevention. Material adapted from the recommendations at the centre for evidence-based medicine in Oxford (courtesy Dr D.L. Sackett).

1. Oxman AD, Sackett DL, Guyatt GH. Users’ guides to the medical literature. I. How to get started. The Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. JAMA. 1993;270:2093-95.

2. Guyatt GH, Sackett DL, Cook DJ. Users’ guides to the medical literature. II. How to use an article about therapy or prevention. A. Are the results of the study valid? Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. JAMA. 1993;270:2598-601.

– key words (no more than 6) in alphabetical order (different words respect to the title and abstract).
Background, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, References and Figure Capture.

(New submission) 
From April 2016, each author are required to conduct their research ethically according to international standards and as required by the journal as described in Padulo J., Oliva F., Frizziero A., Maffulli N. Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal – Basic principles and recommendations in clinical and field Science Research: 2016 Update. MLTJ 2016; 6(1): 1 – 5.  Authors are expected to clearly state in the Methods section – by citing the aforementioned publication – that the study meets the ethical standards of the journal.

Table/s should have a title and should be numbered with Roman numerals (I, II, etc.). The number of the tables must be kept to a minimum. The data must be completely but concisely presented and any abbreviations used should be defined.

Figure/s It is in the author’s interest to provide the highest quality figure format possible. Please be sure that all imported scanned material is scanned at the appropriate resolution: 1200 dpi for line art, 600 dpi for grayscale and 300 dpi for colour.

The Discussion of research papers will be structured according to the following scheme:
• Statement of principal findings
• Strengths and weaknesses of the study
• Strengths and weaknesses in relation to other studies, discussing particularly any differences in results
• Meaning of the study: possible mechanisms and implications for clinicians or policymakers
• Unanswered questions and future research 

Conflict of interest: Are there other relationships or activities that readers could perceive to have influenced, or that give the appearance of potentially influencing, what you wrote in the submitted work? A declaration must be included (or… No other relationships/conditions/circumstances that present potential conflict of interest)

This structure is recommended, but it is not obligatory, for review articles and for case reports. Please note that, if the above structured discussion scheme is not followed in research papers, the manuscript will be returned without undergoing peer review.

Illustrations should be restricted to professionally drawn and lettered originals or glossy prints. High resolution illustrations (graphs included) should be submitted in TIF, JPG or EPS format, or as original prints of such good quality that they can be photographed. Photographs should be submitted in a final size not exceeding the width of the text (15 cm).
References in the text, tables, and legends must be identified by Arabic numerals and cited in superscript.
Make sure that all the abbreviations and symbols in the figure are explained in the legend.

References should be typed single-spaced at the end of the text and numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned. References are to be limited to a maximum of 25 (or 50 in the case of review articles). The reference list must include all authors referred to in the text and in the tables or legends.
References in the text, tables, and legends must be identified by Arabic numerals and cited in superscript. In the text, references shall be made by giving the name of the authors followed by the appropriate number (e.g.: “Smith1 has reported…” or simply by giving the appropriate number in parentheses (e.g.: “As has recently been reported 1,2 …”). In the text, when there are more than two authors, only the name of the first author should be given, followed by “et al.”. In the reference list, all authors should be listed when there are 6 or fewer, when there are 7 or more only the first 3 should be given, followed by “et al.”.
References should follow the “Vancouver” style set forth in the “Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals” with the exception that pagination should be complete. The titles of journals should be abbreviated in accordance with the style used in Medline and/or other leading databases. References should be complete, and include surnames and initials of authors, title of papers referred to, the abbreviated title of the journal, year, volume, first and last page number of the article cited. References to papers “submitted” or to “personal communications” cannot be listed in the reference section; these should be mentioned in the body of the text.
Accurate compilation of the bibliography is mandatory.

The following are sample styles:
1. Dani JA, Montague PR. Disrupting addiction through the loss of drug-associated internal states. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:403-404.
2. Churchland PM. Neurophilosophy at Work. New York; Cambridge University Press 2007.
3. Glannon W. Neurobiology, neuroimaging, and free will. In: French PA, Wettstein AK eds Midwest Studies in Philosophy. Free Will and Moral Responsibility. Oxford; Blackwell. 2005;29:68-82.

Abbreviations: Quantities and units should be expressed in accordance with the recommendations of the International System of Units (SI), 8th edition 2006 (www.bipm.orgutilscommonpdfsi_brochure_8_en.pdf). For recognised abbreviations, see Baron DN, McKenzie Clarke Heds A Guide for Medical and Scientific Authors, 6th edition, March 2008( MLTJ reserves the right to alter manuscripts where necessary to make them conform with the stylistic and bibliographical conventions of the journal. Prior to publication, all texts accepted by the scientific reviewers are reviewed by the journal’s language editor, who may propose changes to improve the style and/or clarity of the text.

Ethics permission: The editors and the publisher support the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki, and expect the authors of papers submitted to the journal to have obtained ethical consent and followed all legal and regulatory requirements for human experimentation with drugs, including informed consent, applicable in their institution and country. The Editor of Audiologia & Foniatria reserves the right to ask for a copy of the Ethics permission of any manuscript submitted to Audiologia & Foniatria.